Pediatric Dentist 8/26/19 – gtg



Scientific studies have shown that crooked teeth on children are often hereditary. If your child is suffering from crooked teeth, there is no need to worry since it can be easily corrected by a pediatric dentist.

Although some got it from poor care of baby teeth, crooked teeth are a problem that has to be remedied as soon as possible. Children as young as seven years old who have crooked teeth must consult a pediatric dentist to asses the situation. The dentist can then take appropriate measures that will solve the problem.

The reason for this is that the earlier the treatment for crooked teeth starts, the sooner it will give results. Since the bone structure of children is still soft and pliable, pediatric dentists may then use dental braces to correct the crooked teeth when permanent teeth erupt which usually happens when your child is 8-15 years old.

Dental braces are the most prevalent solution to crooked teeth. They are made from various materials such as metal, plastic, and ceramic. Dental braces function by applying pressure to the teeth to force them return to their proper position. This is done through the use of brackets and wires which evenly distribute the pressure on the teeth that need to be corrected.

This process is gradual but effective. Your child will wear the dental braces for the required period of time to ensure that the correction is done properly. The pediatric dentist will recommend the period of time as well as how to take care of their maintenance.

Recent technological breakthroughs have provided another kind of dental brace which is made from a different material but functions the same if not better than the conventional dental braces.

The dental brace known as Invisalign is made of clear molded plastic and is transparent, therefore invisible. With this technology, both children and adults alike can be treated for their crooked teeth without showing their dental braces.

The main difference of the conventional and Invisalign is that the former is fixed on the teeth for a period of time while Invisalign can be taken off when eating, which gives additional comfort to the patient. Another difference is that patients wearing Invisalign get new aligners every couple of weeks to progress the correction period of the teeth. Most importantly, Invisalign is clear, thereby eliminating the appearance of ugly metal braces.

If you feel that your child needs braces, consult the pediatric dentist in your area. It won’t take much of your time especially if you did it within the time frame mentioned above. After the visit to the pediatric dentist, they will advise as to whether your child should wear conventional braces or Invisalign.

No matter what corrective measure you choose, dental braces can get results in a period of time. Once the braces are removed, the crooked teeth are gone to reveal beautiful, straight teeth.




It isn’t really uncanny for cute little infants and toddlers to suck their thumbs in the same way that they drink their baby bottles. It can be quite difficult for very young minds to move past the habit of sucking some sort of pacifier; hence children develop the thumb sucking habit. Aside from being just a simple habit, the act is also presumed to give children that comfort and security they need for their fragile and innocent thinking.

Just as it develops over a period to become a regular part of the routine, thumb sucking is expected to eventually fade away on its own. By the age of four or five, a child should have moved past the stage of habitually sucking his thumb or perhaps a pacifier for refuge. Upon attending school he/she must have realized that the action is a liability or burden when interacting with other people. His/her self-esteem drops whenever someone notices and laugh about it.

However, for some children, thumb sucking doesn’t go away that easily or quickly. Some of them continue the habit in their early teens and thus produce dental problems that require expensive and lengthy treatments. In such instances, parents need to step in and help their children as early as possible to stop the practice.

So, how should mature adults handle their child’s thumb sucking conundrum efficiently so that their youngster can benefit from a grown-up life free of the hassles that the condition results in? There are several methods available these days and here are some that parents can try:

Make use of authority as well as peer pressure to enforce the idea that the habit should be stopped.

This is the most typical approach of parents when they want to correct any unhealthy or debilitating habit of their offspring, which is also sometimes associated with the punishment system.

Commanding children to obey orders is usually effective although it can be risky at times because either of these may develop as well: fear or anger. Fear can foster timidity, whereas anger can instill rebelliousness. What’s important for adults to note is that they should be in control, especially in terms of guiding the young mind to healthy living.

If negative reinforcement fails to work, try the reward system.

For more liberated parents that prefer equality in relationship rather than hierarchy, positive reinforcement may be a more recommendable technique. Rather than noticing the wrongdoings of the child such as when he’s caught sucking his thumb, praise him for not doing it. In this way he can regain the confidence he might have lost from the humiliation of failing to control his thumb sucking habit and thus exert more effort in successfully stopping it.

Weaken the habit by distracting him with other non-expensive or cheap activities and hobbies.

More often than not, a trigger exists for nearly every habit developed by an individual. It may be a blanket, a toy, a playground, a food, a location, a sound, a beverage—anything could provoke a child to suck his thumb even unconsciously. Identifying that trigger would greatly help to easily manage and limit the occurrence of thumb sucking.

Another technique that people usually try is placing a reminder that can be immediately spotted, such as a tape wrapped around the thumb, so as to become more conscious of the habit and be able to control it.

It is also possible to set-up a diversion system such that when the habit is known to persist, an activity or hobby should be done in order to shift the attention to something else other than the thumb sucking practice.

Consult with a pediatric dentist in for the possible use of a mouth appliance or device.

If all else fails, a dentist or specialist in his office may be able to help in recommending or prescribing a more fail-proof solution. It may be more expensive than the above mentioned home remedies but it’s definitely worth a try—especially in showing love for a family member.


Nearly every toothpaste contains fluoride as its main ingredient: sodium fluoride, calcium fluoride, etc. All top dentists and specialists in the country as well as in other continents agree that every effective toothpaste they will recommend to their patients should should contain fluoride.

But why fluoride—how did people come up with idea to mix it in a tasty, foamy mouth paste? How effective is the chemical in maintaining dental hygiene? And the most important question of any concerned patient who cares about his own life and health and that of his family, is no other than this: Is it safe?

Fluoride and Its Tremendous Benefits

The ninth element in the periodic table has the chemical symbol F and is named fluorine.When this basic atom becomes charged, meaning there’s an imbalance in the positive and negative charges within the atom, it is then called fluoride.

This fluoride ion can combine with other ionic or charged chemical compounds to create a new stable substance. When it mixes with calcium, it can become calcium fluoride; if mixed with sodium, it’s turned to sodium fluoride. These two substances formed are the common ingredients of either cheap or expensive toothpastes.

So, what does fluoride do for the teeth? This ingredient helps the tooth in its re-mineralization, which is the process of replenishing the mineral content it has lost. More often than not, minerals are dissolved from the enamel, which is the tooth’s outer layer, every now and then because of cavities or holes created. These pearly whites, much like the bones, are made up of minerals including calcium and fluoride, to name a few.

Causes and Effects of Fluorosis

Based from the explanation above about fluoride, it would appear that it is very good for the teeth. Unfortunately, this isn’t always exactly the case. Too much of anything is harmful for the body, and in this case, too much fluorine can result in dental fluorosis or worse possible fatal poisoning.

The reason why children’s toothpastes were recently introduced isn’t just because of marketing. The real motive behind them was that they’re manufactured with significantly lesser fluoride than the ones for adults. Unlike fully developed permanent teeth, children’s deciduous teeth are still fragile as they undergo development; too much fluorine in their surface creates spots on them that later on can become permanent discolorations.

That is only the first half of regular fluoride toothpaste’s harm for young, underdeveloped teeth. The other one is what should be watched out for carefully, especially for parents who worry too much for their family, in particular their offspring.

Fluoride intoxication presents itself as severe stomach cramping, nausea, and vomiting, just to name a few. It happens when children’s very young bodies happen to ingest more than enough fluorine that it can handle. For the general public knowledge, this roughly equates to half a tube of adult toothpaste.

How to Prevent Fluoride Poisoning

It isn’t unusual to hear news about children swallowing toothpaste and suffering the consequences just minutes later. After all, children do the darndest things. It is essential for parents to guide their children as they brush their teeth, and teach them the proper way to do it. Children’s toothpaste is also recommended by pediatric dentists to secure the safety of their oral cavity as well as whole body.


It isn’t uncommon for very young children to have memorable blunders and funny moments when speaking, especially if it’s their first time and they still have a lot to learn. This is experienced by nearly every person, girl and boy alike, and becomes a family memory that isn’t easily forgotten.

However, if the individual’s problem with pronouncing words or certain syllables persist over time and has become embarrassingly noticeable, it may be worse than just a childhood glitch that’s supposed to go away. One factor that parents might account for is the occlusion of the upper and lower arches of teeth—more commonly known as the bite.

Occlusion: The Closing of the Mouth

In the English thesaurus, the word occlusion is synonymous to closure. Dictionaries identify the term as a noun that means closing off. In medical science though, specifically in the practice of dentistry, occlusion is more prominently defined as the bite. When the mouth occludes, it simply closes off to hide the oral cavity. But when the teeth occlude, the upper and lower arches meet for the sole purpose of biting; otherwise, a disorder may exist.

There are three (3) identified key purposes of occlusion: mastication, speech, and swallowing. Mastication refers to the breakdown of food both chemically and mechanically, which is the initial stage of digestion. Speech in this regard denotes verbal communication or utterance of ideas by sound production. On the other hand, swallowing is simply the movement of the soft palate and related parts to allow passage of digested materials in the digestive system while closing off the nasal cavity to prevent non-gaseous particles from entering the respiratory system.

According to top pediatric dentists, problems concerning the bite, which are all generally classified under malocclusion, should be diagnosed as early as possible and fortunately can be treated. Among the most obvious signs of malocclusion are teeth misalignment and the resulting deficiency in pronouncing some vowels.

Malocclusion and Its Various Forms Affected by the Teeth

There are basically three (3) classifications of occlusion and are named simply as Type I, Type II, and Type III. For mankind, normal bite is expected to fall under Type I occlusion, wherein the upper arch is slightly more forward to the lower when the teeth meet or occlude.

Malocclusion may be caused by either jaw alignment or teeth arrangement; the latter is more evident among adolescent and adults whose permanent teeth have all erupted, while the former usually persists from a younger age. Between the two, teeth misalignment can be corrected with braces and may postpone treatment for a longer period.

Several reasons may exist in the misalignment of the teeth and in effect result to malocclusion. One of them is overcrowding, which may be caused by wisdom tooth eruption even when the arch no longer has space for it to grow; or it may also be due to supernumerary or extra tooth that all of a sudden erupts out of nowhere—typically a congenital condition. Another is wide gap between teeth produced by either an extraction or a disease in which the tooth never developed to begin with and so it didn’t erupt.

As a precautionary measure, parents are recommended to immediately consult with the best orthodontist dental office at the first sign of malocclusion. This is essential to avoid lengthy and expensive procedures, as well as prevent the problem from worsening, so that the child can enjoy the benefits of a healthy mouth and a correctly aligned set of teeth.


Every year, millions of Americans lose their teeth, usually due to tooth decay. The war with cavities has been going on since the dawn of mankind’s civilization and some people have won the struggle throughout the course of their lifetime. However, there are also cases when the outcome is rather bad and unfortunate, although not totally unexpected: painful extraction and sometimes distressing natural loss.

But adults aren’t just the only ones who are faced with tooth loss as a result of dental caries, which is the technical term used in dental offices to also refer to cavities. Even children and their deciduous or baby teeth can suffer from cavities and lead to immediate decay or loss. How is it possible? The explanation as follows might help one understand.

Dental Caries: How the Holes are Created on Teeth

The oral cavity, according to experts, always has microorganisms living in it—day in and day out. Bacteria and germs are able to reside within but with carefully maintained habits, oral and dental hygiene can be achieved and secured.

Some bacteria remain in the mouth even after all the effort put into cleaning it; they usually do little harm considering the body’s normal response to threat and danger, which is to regenerate cells and fight the harmful microorganisms. These germs and microbes aren’t exactly the ones that create the cavities on teeth, rather the acidic substance they secrete.

The metabolic process involved in the production of this acid that erodes the tooth’s enamel or surface requires the breakdown of complex carbohydrates—in a word, sugar. The more sugar is consumed, the more acid is produced and the faster the secretion becomes. This is the very reason why the top general dentists always recommend their patients to avoid sweets in their diets and point out that sugar causes the increase of cavities.

Tooth Decay: How Cavities Damage and Weaken Teeth

Acids are known to be potent chemical elements that burn or eliminate anything that gets in their way. In the case of bacteria and germs secreting acidic substance, the teeth’s outer layer suffers the initial damage. This part of the tooth is called enamel and is made up of hard minerals.

The enamel is able to re-mineralize or replenish its lost mineral content caused by the caries so as to protect the more sensitive part within called the dentin. However, if the rate of acid production is significantly faster than the re-mineralization process, the tooth is doomed for rapid and inevitable decay or deterioration.

From Baby Bottle Tooth Decay to Early Childhood Caries

The best pediatric dentists call the cavities on children’s deciduous teeth as early childhood caries. A dental filling may be able to resolve such problem in a child who is afraid and still hesitant of painful dental treatment but experts prefer exodontia or tooth extraction in order to give way to the permanent tooth later on and prevent unbearable toothache in the near future.

Even babies who still have to learn the basics of tooth brushing can also have cavities in their very small milk teeth. This is more commonly referred to as baby bottle tooth decay. The name derives itself from the idea that the baby’s bottle, which may contain milk or other drinks except water, can be left on the infant’s mouth as he relaxes to sleep. With the carbs remaining in the oral cavity, bacteria continuously secrete their harmful substance to damage the fragile little teeth.

Top specialists in therefore suggest parents to always be attentive of their son or daughter’s oral health, even before they can begin understanding the world.


Many young patients often wonder what their pediatric or general dentists see when they open their mouths. The answer is pretty simple: the oral cavity. But what does this hole contain exactly? The key parts that are of high importance to any health professional are teeth, gums, and tongue.

The Pearly Whites: Stainless and Glossy Teeth

Teeth may be classified under either of these categories: heterodontia and diphyodontia. The former refers to the type of teeth according to their location in the oral cavity as well as function. The latter meanwhile simply denotes the difference between the deciduous and permanent teeth that develop in a person’s lifetime.

For children, the number of deciduous or baby teeth that erupt in their youth is no more than twenty, meaning molars have no baby teeth counterparts. On the other hand, at most thirty-two (32) permanent teeth are generally expected to erupt for a normal human being. This is even lesser if the wisdom teeth never grow.

Beginning in the middle, the eight teeth in front that are most prominent when smiling are called the incisors; they’re divided into central and lateral incisors, and are sharp by nature to cut and slice through foods. Beside them are the canines that have the unique single cuspid or cusp that’s meant to hold and tear down food. They are followed by two sets of premolars or bicuspids, which are characterized by their two cusps.

Finally, at the back of the mouth, one can find the two to three sets of molars—the thickest teeth hidden at the farther end of the oral cavity and are shaped with the most number of cuspids, which is four (4). For experts, they’re known to be designed to grind and crush foods, just like the premolars, so that the digestive system can easily digest the pulverized particles mixed with bodily fluids such as saliva.

The Gum Lines: Soft and Fleshy Gingival Tissues

The tender and fleshy tissues surrounding two-thirds of the part of the tooth, also known as the root, are called the gums—more technically referred to as the gingiva. These gums cover the maxilla and mandible, which are the upper and lower jaw bones respectively, and they protect the roots from damage and injury. They secure the teeth’s attachment to the bones so that they can’t be extracted or uprooted easily.

The Movable Muscle of the Mouth: Flexible and Mobile Tongue

The only muscle in the oral cavity that rests in the floor of the mouth is called the tongue. Its movement can be controlled to serve several functions, one of which is to speak properly. Apart from the benefit of improving speech patterns with the tongue, the flexible muscle also moves the food inside the mouth in order to help the teeth digest it properly.

The taste buds on top of it respond to the chemicals ingested, inevitably triggering the production of saliva and other gastric juices to chemically breakdown food particles. specialists strongly recommend brushing this surface as well with either the toothbrush or a tongue scraper so as to remove bacteria that could build up over time and cause severe, costly problems in the long run.


Pediatric dentists aim to provide quality dental care to your children.

Here are several things that we need to know more about pediatric dentists:

Child Friendly- pediatric dentists specialize in children’s oral care. For that matter alone, we are certain that they are adept in methods that will ensure that our children will have a pleasant and memorable experience with them. The environment of the clinic of pediatric dentists are designed especially for children.

Parent Friendly- the interaction of the pediatric dentist is not limited to children only. In fact, the main line of communication is between the parent and the pediatric dentist. Since children are not old enough to understand dental advice, it is the parent who will teach and guide the children to practice good oral hygiene.

Specialist- pediatric dentists underwent two to three years of specialty training after dental school focusing on dental care for children. Since pediatric dentists deals primarily with children, they are trained to effectively communicate with children.

Up-to-Date- since they specialized in children, a pediatric dentist is well-versed with the latest dental advancement.
Now that we have a fairly good idea of what to know about pediatric dentist, it is now only a matter of choosing who to trust with the dental health of our children. This is important since we want not only our children to be comfortable with the dentist, but ourselves as well.

This is because we as parents are the ones who will see to it that the instructions of the dentist will be followed by our children. A healthy relationship is needed.

It is important to be aware that children, just like adults, need regular dental check ups. Good oral hygiene must start at an early age. Scientific evidence shows that early childhood dental problems will affect the growth of permanent teeth. As we all know, a lot of problems may arise then.

Pediatric dentists are the same everywhere. You can be assured that they will take proper care of the dental health of your children.

A quick search online will let you find the best children’s dentist in your area. You can easily make an appointment for your child. Pediatric dentists will ensure that your child will experience a memorable visit to the dentist and will in fact anticipate the next visit. You would not be surprised anymore if they want to visit the dentist sooner than they should.

We all love to see our children have that wonderful smile and be confident that they are practicing good oral hygiene.


You might often wonder when is the right time to take your children to a pediatric dentist. There are several ways to prevent and avoid early childhood dental problems.

Since your child usually has a large intake of sugar from milk, fruit juices and other sweetened drinks, it is best to visit a pediatric dentist the earliest time possible.

First, we have to understand that early childhood dental problems will affect the development of the primary teeth which will also affect the proper growth of the permanent teeth. It is always better to prevent than to cure. This also helps to prevent fear of the dentist, which usually occurs when you wait to go to the dentist until a problem occurs and you are already in pain.

Second, by visiting the pediatric dentist the earliest time possible, we will know all the facts we need to learn to make sure we teach our children good oral hygiene. Additional knowledge won’t hurt on our part.

Since studies have shown that poor oral hygiene will lead to problems in speech, self confidence and eating habits, the ideal visit to the pediatric dentist, as suggested by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, is six months after first tooth appears.

If your child is already a year-old, a dental check-up is needed. From here, your child will have a regular dentist visit which may be twice a year or as recommended by the pediatric dentist.

It is heavily suggested not to wait for your child to experience toothache or grow cavities before even thinking about the pediatric dentist. This is usually the case where parents ignore the dental health of their children thinking that since they only have temporary teeth, a dentist is not needed. Nothing could be more further from the truth as explained above.

You also have to consider that a regular dental check-up will teach your children to practice good oral hygiene. The end result of this is you avoid expensive treatments and possibly procedures on your child’s teeth since they have been taking care of them from an early age. We all know what one has to go through in a root canal procedure.

In our modern world, it is very easy to look for the best pediatric dentist in town. A quick search online will give you an idea of the available dentists in your area. Say, you are from San Antonio, Google “best pediatric dentist in San Antonio” and you will get results immediately. It is the same wherever you live.

The important thing to consider is that we take care of our children. Whether if it is for their books, toys, clothes, or a visit to a pediatric dentist, let us see to it that it will be provided.

We all do love children smiling at us especially if they flash that perfect smile, courtesy of your teaching them good oral hygiene and of course with the help of their pediatric dentist.


ortho 7/16/19 – gtg


Temporomandibular Disorder

Millions of Americans suffer from chronic facial and neck pain as well as recurrent headaches. In some cases this pain is due to Temporomandibular Disorder, or TMD.

Your temporomandibular joints, or jaw joints, connect your lower jawbone to your skull. As you may imagine, these joints get quite a lot of use throughout the day as you speak, chew, swallow, and yawn. Pain in and around these joints can be unpleasant and may even restrict movement.

Symptoms of TMD include:
Pain in the jaw area
Pain, ringing, or stuffiness in the ears
Frequent headaches or neck aches
Clicking or popping sound when the jaw moves
Swelling on the sides of the face
Muscle spasms in the jaw area
A change in the alignment of top and bottom teeth
Locked jaw or limited opening of the mouth

Should you notice any of these symptoms, let us know! We can help advise you as to whether they indicate the presence of TMD, and what sort of treatment is appropriate for you.

If you don’t have any of these symptoms, let’s keep it that way! There are some simple things you can do at home or work to prevent TMD from occurring in your jaw joints:

Relax your face – remember the rule: “Lips together, teeth apart”
Avoid grinding your teeth
Avoid constant gum chewing
Don’t cradle the phone receiver between your head and shoulder – either use a headset or hold the receiver to your ear
Chew food evenly on both sides of your mouth
Do not sit with your chin rested on your hand
Practice good posture – keep your head up, back straight, and shoulders squared
Orthodontic’s Glossary of Terms===================gtg










Great Content about Texas:


One of the most popular tourist destinations in the United States is Texas. There are several reasons for this but the biggest is that you can do almost anything that you could want to do on vacation in the state. As the largest state in the lower forty eight it offers a great deal of diversity allowing for a wide variety of activities. The great weather doesn’t hurt either.

One of the great things about visiting Texas is that there are so many different things that you can do. For starters if you are looking to spend time in a large city Texas has two of the largest and most cosmopolitan cities in the United States. Both Dallas and Houston are large metro areas that are full of everything that you would expect to find in a large city. In addition several of the smaller cities like San Antonio are well worth a visit since they have many of the attractions of a large city in a more laid back environment.

Texas Bluebonnets

Texas is also a great place to visit if you are into outdoor activities. There are lots of camping areas in the state and many areas of natural beauty to visit. There also lots of rivers and lakes which are great for both boating and fishing. One of the great things about outdoor activities in Texas is that they are easily accessible since you don’t have to go far from the cities to be in the wilderness.

For history buffs there are few states better to visit then Texas, it has probably the most interesting history of any part of the country. Much of that history is preserved with historical sites and monuments as well as history trails that you can follow. In addition there are many excellent museums and several ghost towns that will allow you to experience the past.

Although it may not be the most obvious choice as a beach destination Texas is in fact a popular choice for people looking to lay in the sun. Texas has many excellent beaches and since the weather is almost always sunny it is a great option if your idea of good vacation is lounging on the beach. There really is something for everybody in Texas so it should definitely be a location you consider for your next vacation.

Travelling to Texas is fairly easy which is one of the reasons that it is so popular as a tourist destination. Located fairly centrally it is easy to reach by car from almost anywhere in the country. In addition it is well served by airlines so flying is an excellent option. In addition there is a very well developed tourist infrastructure in the state which means that there are lots of accommodation options whatever your price range is.

Through most of its early history Texas was settled by various native tribes. The first Europeans arrived in 1519 when Spanish conquistadors came to the area. However the early Europeans saw little of value to keep them in Texas so the first settlement did not occur until 1682 when a small French Colony was established. This colony only lasted a couple of years but it was enough to encourage the Spanish to set up new colonies in the region. In large part this was done to claim the area for Spain and to keep the French from expanding the Louisiana Territory into Texas.

The Spanish would rule Texas as part of its American colonies for the next hundred and forty years. Although only a very small number of people settled in the area. However in 1821 Mexico including Texas won its independence from Spain. The new Mexican government proved to be very unpopular in Texas and almost immediately there was a push for independence. In an attempt to gain independence Texas actively recruited settlers from the United States in the hopes that if there were enough Americans living in the region the US would support them in the fight.

The Texas revolution began in 1835 and would last for about a year. Because of the very small population of Texas there was very little actual fighting, although the Alamo has become famous as a battle site from the war. In reality Texas won its independence mostly by default. The Mexicans were largely unable to administer the region properly so they put up little real resistance to Texas becoming an independent country which occurred in 1836.

Although Texans take great pride in having once been an independent country the truth is the brief period that they were independent were a nightmare for the people who lived there. The Texans proved no more capable of administering the area than the Mexicans had been. The result was a great deal of internal conflict as well as many disputes with the native population. As a result in 1845 at the request of the Texas government the area was annexed by the United States.

Texas would only remain a part of the union for a brief period before leaving again in 1861 at the start of the Civil war. As a member of the Confederacy they fought against the union during the war although there were few actual battles in Texas. Following the war Texas went through a period of reconstruction however as there had been few battles in the state and they had not had a large cotton producing industry anyway they came through it better than the other confederate states. Over the course of the twentieth century Texas has become one of the wealthiest states in the US due largely to cattle and oil production.
Texans proudly talk about the six flags that have flown over the state; one of those was the flag of the confederacy. During the Civil War Texas would fight on behalf of the Confederacy even though today few people think of it as being a southern state. There are various reasons that the Confederate legacy is less pronounced in Texas than in other states.

Texas would secede from the Union in 1861 and join with the confederacy however the decision to do this was somewhat controversial. Unlike most of the other southern states there was considerable support for remaining in the union. One of the leading members of the pro-union faction was the governor Sam Houston. Ultimately it became clear that the majority of the population did support joining the confederacy however this required removing Sam Houston from his position as governor since he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy.

Once the war started Texas served mainly as a supply state as there was very little actual fighting in the area. At the time Texas was still fairly sparsely populated, it also didn’t have the large cotton plantations that the other southern states had. This meant that the state suffered less than the other states in the confederacy did during the war. Nevertheless there was a naval blockade of Galveston that made it impossible to Texas to export anything.

Over the course of the Civil War opposition to it increased in Texas in large part because of the attempt to conscript Texans as soldiers. Most Texans supported the war in principle as a way to assert states rights but they were not all that interested in going off to fight on behalf of the wealthy plantation owners in other states. A significant number of Texans would actually join the Union army which is an indication of just how divided the state was on the issue.

As it started to become clear that the Union were going to win the Civil War a large number of soldiers from Texas began to desert from the Confederate army. The state was soon occupied and reconstruction began. This went fairly quickly for Texas since there had been little fighting in the area. In addition since cotton production had made up a relatively small part of the state’s economy they were able to adapt to life without slaves better than most of the other southern states.

Ultimately Texas would be readmitted to the Union in 1870 although this was done despite the fact that they didn’t meet the requirements that had been set out. Mostly this was the result of the way that the freed slaves were treated. Since Most of the Texas was actually settled after the war ended there is considerably fewer people who take pride in the states Confederate history than there are in the other southern states.

The climate in Texas is varied from one area to another; this is to be expected in such a large state. Part of the reason is the huge variety of geography that Texas has. There are coastal regions, mountains, deserts and wide open planes. In addition the state is located where several climate zones meet which also affects the weather. In large part the area that you are located in will determine what the climate will be like.

The coastal regions of Texas have the sort of weather that you would expect to find on any other area around the Gulf of Mexico. In general the weather is mild getting neither particularly hot in the summer nor particularly cold during the winter. There is however a considerable amount of rain in the coastal areas. In addition hurricanes are a not infrequent occurrence in the coastal regions; some of these have been very destructive.

The northern plains region of the panhandle will experience both the coldest and the hottest temperatures in the state. Being furthest away from the water it does not have the regulating effect that occurs in most of the rest of the state. Temperatures frequently fall below freezing during the winter and they can get very hot during the summer. Although there is not a lot of rain in this region thunderstorms are fairly common during the summer. These thunderstorms can produce a great deal of rain in a very short time, they also so times spawn tornados.

West Texas is mostly desert area with little rain and hot temperatures during the summer. It can however get quite cold in the winter. The area also has most of the states mountain areas. In the mountains the climate tends to be more temperate with temperatures being more stable and there being more rain produced. The mountain areas do however tend to be very windy.

Most of central Texas is hill country which has a climate that is similar to the one in the panhandle but not as extreme. The summer tends to be hot and winter quite cool. There are however more rivers and lakes in this area to help regulate the temperature. In addition there are large areas of forest which tends to inhibit the development of thunderstorms so they are not as frequent as in the panhandle, although they do still occur.

As a state Texas has some of the most extreme weather that you will find anywhere in the country. While certain regions have certain climate traits you can get almost any weather anywhere. This was shown in 2004 when a large snow storm fell on the coastal regions. Because of the extremes of weather it is important for the visitor to Texas to be prepared for all kinds of weather since they are likely to happen.
Texas is a big state which has meant that they have had to develop an extensive transportation system. This is good news for the visitor in that there is a significant infrastructure so you should not have any trouble getting around. However you should keep in mind that most of the transportation options in Texas are very crowded so there may be delays.

Texas has one of the largest highway systems in the United States and indeed the world. The highways are heavily travelled which does tend to result in lengthy delays, especially on the highways around large urban areas. Most people in Texas get around by driving their own car so there is almost always a great deal of traffic on the roads. The problem is made worse by the fact that public transit in the state is not particularly good. Most of the roads in Texas were built in the fifties and are not really up to handling the amount of traffic that they currently get, which is a big part of why there are so many delays.

Between the fact that most Texans prefer to drive and the fact that the state is well known as one that has low taxes and provides few services it should not come as a surprise to learn that the public transit is considered to be substandard. The major cities for the most part have public transit, although somehow Arlington, right in the middle of the Dallas metropolitan area has no public transit at all. Light rail transit is particularly limited although Houston is currently working on a thirty mile extension to their system.

The state of Texas is well served by air travel. Currently the airport in Dallas is the second largest in the country with the airport in Houston not being far behind. Most cities in Texas have an airport and even a lot of small towns have them as well. Almost all airlines that fly to the United States have flights that go to Texas and there are several regional airlines that offer service within the state.

Most people are surprised to learn that Houston is the busiest port in the United States but that is in fact the case. Texas has several ports and it is one of the major shipping centers for the country. In large part this is to ship the oil and cattle that are produced in Texas.

For the visitor getting around should not be a major issue in Texas. The transportation infrastructure is well developed and except for issues with public transit you should not have a huge problem. Clearly it will be necessary to either drive your own car or to rent one in order to get around but both are easy options and should not present a problem.

Texans are extremely proud of the history of their state and of being Texans in general. Most people think of themselves as being Texans first and Americans second. That being said they do tend to be very patriotic citizens of the US. The state has a rather unique history which you will hear about frequently while you are there. You will often hear about the six flags that have flown over Texas and the fact that it was once an independent country. This does tend to gloss over some of the negative parts of the history however, The brief period when Texas was an independent country were amongst the worst in its history for example.

If Texans are proud and boastful they are also a very friendly people. They are well known for their hospitality and they will have no trouble starting a conversation with a stranger. Some visitors may find this to be a little bit worrying as Texans will often talk to you like you’re an old friend even if they have just met you. This is just the way that things are done in Texas and you will get used to it pretty quickly.

Over the years the culture of Texas has gone through a bit of a change mainly due to the massive numbers of Mexicans who have moved into the state. As a result a great deal of Mexican culture is now present. This is obviously most true amongst the immigrant community but even the people who have lived in Texas for generations are starting to pick up on some of this as well.

One thing to keep in mind is that the way that people in Texas live will be affected by where they live. For example the people in Houston or Dallas live a lifestyle that is similar to the way that anybody else who lives in a large city would live. However there are also still people who live and work on ranches or out in oilfields who live a very different lifestyle. Therefore you really can’t make any generalizations about the way that people in Texas live.

One other thing to keep in mind is that Texas also has one of the most uneven distributions of income in the US. There are many people in the state who are very wealthy but also a lot of people who are very poor. Most of the people in the lower income bracket tend to be immigrants, often illegal ones. Unfortunately in Texas there is little government assistance for people who are poor which makes the problem worse. Obviously the people with low incomes live a very different life from those who are very wealthy which again makes it hard to make any generalizations about the way that Texans live.

Texas has an excellent and very extensive system of public universities. These are very popular amongst students in large part because students from Texas who meet the standards for acceptance are able to attend school tuition free. Clearly this has resulted in large numbers of students taking advantage of the opportunity which is why the state needs to have such an extensive system of schools. In addition to the public universities there are also a large number of private colleges.

Texas has a very extensive system of universities which makes it somewhat unique compared to how the system works in most other places. There are basically six state universities but each of these has several branches. The result is that there are actually dozens of campuses around the state. The biggest of these is the University of Texas system. They operate fourteen universities throughout the state and combined they have the largest student enrollment by far.

The next university system in Texas is the Texas A&M system. These schools got their name because they started out as the Texas agricultures and mechanical college. This system runs twelve campuses throughout the state making it the second largest system.

The Texas State University was original created in the early twentieth century to train teachers. Over the years however it has expanded to become a full university and it now runs four campuses around the state.

The University of North Texas was founded because of a need to accommodate more students in the Dallas area. There are two campuses that offer undergraduate studies as well as a medical school and a law school.

During the nineteen seventies it started to become clear that there was a need for a new university in Houston so the University of Houston opened in 1977. Today they have four campuses throughout the city and now have one of the largest student enrolments in the state.

Texas Tech was founded in the twenties in order to provide training for engineers however it has since grown to become a full fledged university. There are now thirteen campuses as part of the system which is spread around the state.

In addition to the major university systems that run most of the state schools there are also four independent state schools that operate with state funding but are outside of the systems that were created for the other systems. Texas is widely regarded to have one of the best public university systems in the country with several of its schools ranking near the top of most annual rankings.

Besides the public university system in Texas there are also a large number of private institutions. This includes some of the finest schools in the country like Baylor and Rice universities. There are no shortage of schools in the state so there is plenty of opportunity to get an education in the state of Texas.


There are a lot of well known people who have come from Texas. This will of course come as no surprise given that it is the second most populous state in the union. The number of famous people is made even longer by the rather unique history that the state of Texas has compared to other states.

Given how proud Texans are of their history it will come as no surprise that many of the most famous Texans are the leaders of the revolution that made Texas independent in 1836. The most well known of these is Sam Houston. Admittedly he is best known for the city that was named after him but he was also the first president of the Republic of Texas as well as being the first governor when Texas became a state. Sam Houston is an important figure in the founding of Texas and is well remembered in the state.

Other famous Texans from the early days of the state are the ones who fought at the Alamo during the revolution. The best known of these were Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie. Neither of them actually lived in Texas for a particularly long time and both had actually become famous before they moved to Texas. However since they both died at the Alamo they are largely associated with the state of Texas. Most of the others who died at the Alamo are also well known within the state although they are not as famous as Crockett and Bowie.

Texas has produced a number of presidents, although just how many is not clear. Nobody disputes that Lyndon Johnson was at Texan having been born and raised there. Also not really in dispute is George W. Bush who although born in Connecticut was raised largely in Texas and would serve as governor of the state before becoming president. Where there is debate about presidents who are from Texas is with the senior George Bush. He would not move to Texas until he was an adult but he did work in the oil business in Texas and represented the state in Congress. Even more debatable is Dwight Eisenhower who although born in Texas was largely raised in Kansas, although he did spend some time in Texas while he was in the military.

Texas of course is a huge state with a very large population so it has produced a great many people who have gone onto fame. Many actors, musicians and athletes have come from state as have successful people from other fields. There are lots of places that you can go online and find a comprehensive list of all the famous people from the state. It will take you a considerable amount of time to sort through these lists however as there are a lot of people on them.

Texas is a very popular tourist destination and one of the reasons for that it is that it is such an easy place to visit. While there is not a lot that you need to know in order to visit Texas there are a few tips that will help to make your trip more enjoyable.

The biggest tip for visiting Texas is to keep in mind that the state is really big. People of course know that it is the biggest state in the lower forty eight but most people underestimate just how big it truly is. This is something that you have to keep in mind when you are planning your travels, there are long distances between towns and cities. Realistically you are not going to see all of the state so you will be better off choosing a part of it that you would like to visit and sticking to that part.

Another important tip for visiting Texas is that you are going to have to have access to a car. That means you will either need to drive your own or rent one when you get there. In most places you can get away without having one but Texas is not one of those places. Public transit is of a very low quality and as mentioned above things are very spread out. Make sure that you plan to have access to a car while you are in Texas unless the plan is to stay in only one area. Also make sure that you learn the local driving rules, some of them can be pretty interesting.

It is important to realize that the weather in Texas can be variable. In fact you can experience almost any kind of weather imaginable in the state. That means that you are going to have to be prepared for anything. While Texas is generally warm there are parts that get very cold, especially at night. You also have to be prepared for the fact that it rains a lot in certain regions, of course there is very little rain in other areas. The point is that because of the huge size of Texas you may encounter almost any conditions.

Most people who visit Texas tend to do so with a fairly minimal amount of planning. For the most part this is easy to do as the state has a well established infrastructure for tourists. However you will find that if you put a little bit of thought into your trip you will have more fun. There is so much to do in Texas that you won’t be able to do anywhere near all of it. For this reason the best thing to do is to decide on the things that you really want to do but also to leave enough flexibility in your schedule that you can take advantage of any interesting opportunities that come up.
Traffic is an issue that you are going to have to face whenever you drive, however as a visitor to Texas there may be more of than you are used to. Because of that you are going to want to make sure that you are able to find plenty of traffic information.

If you are going to drive in Texas, and if you are going to visit you will pretty much have to drive, you are going to want to make sure that you stay up to date on traffic information. There are a lot of people in the state and virtually all of them drive everywhere that they go. This is made even worse by the fact that most of the roads were built in the fifties and never intended to get anything close to the amount of traffic that they currently get. As a result traffic jams are commonplace and it can take a long time to get where you are going.

The biggest traffic problems in the state are around the large cities especially Dallas and Houston. The Freeways are the worst areas but you can get a traffic tie up on almost any major road. It is also important to be aware that this can happen at any time of the day. Certainly it happens most frequently at rush hour but there will be plenty of times when there is a traffic jam in the middle of the day. The best way to avoid this is to pay attention to the traffic reports.

The best way to get traffic information for Texas is online. The State has a website that will report on any traffic issues. However most people feel that the sites that are offered by local radio and television stations are more useful since the information will be more up to date. These sites will allow you to enter your route so that you can see what the traffic is like before you set out. If the traffic is heavy on the route that you plan to take the site may offer you an alternative route if one exists.

Of course the traffic situation can change while you are driving so you will want to stay on top of this as well. The best way to do this would be to use a wireless device that allows you to look at the websites that show you how much traffic there is. However this is dangerous if you are driving so you don’t want to do that. If there is somebody else in the car who can look at these things for you while you drive that would be a good option. Otherwise you are going to have to rely on the radio to provide you with traffic information, they are pretty good about doing this because traffic is such an issue throughout the state.