Texarkana Swimming Pool Accident Attorney Michael Grossman Discusses Swimming Pool Drowning Accidents
The cool, refreshing shimmering waters in backyard swimming pools summon sweat-soaked Texarkanians out of the roiling summer sun and into their refreshing liquid cocoons. Multitudes of Texarkana homeowners and apartment dwellers enjoy these aquatic oases.

However, these havens of H2O renewal and relaxation can become harbingers of pain and suffering if improper supervision and pool maintenance occur. Apartment complex pools, city or community pools and backyard pools are the sites of swimming pool drownings and accidents resulting in severe injury or even death. If you or a loved one has experienced injury or death in any of the places mentioned above, you may want to file a lawsuit to seek restitution through monetary compensation and to dispense justice on the liable parties. Michael Grossman Texarkana swimming pool drowning and accident attorney, with over two decades of experience in personal injury and wrongful death litigation, can help you in the aftermath of a swimming pool accident or tragedy.

How Do Swimming Pool Accidents Take Place?
Swimming pool accidents happen primarily because of a lack of supervision. We all know horror stories of children drowning in an accident that happened in the twinkling of an eye. The speed at which drowning accidents occur is astounding—they afford little mercy or room for error, it seems. Just a brief lapse in monitoring minors can result in tragedy. The negligent party may have either been an adult supervising or a lifeguard.

Even when a child is rescued from a fatal drowning accident, lifelong debilitating medical conditions can remain, caused by a lack of oxygen to the child’s brain while they were submerged under the water. These type of injuries that change a child’s life also places severe financial stress and economic hardship upon the family to provide the needed medical care. Then, the horrific grief suffered by a family over the loss of their child in a fatal pool accident can be debilitating. In each situation, the grieving family can seek compensation for their loss. Obviously, no amount of money can compensate a family for the loss of their child, yet it can provide much needed economic relief from costly medical expenses and other damages that are incurred.

Inadequate pool maintenance is another reason pool accidents happen so often. Keeping pools safe and functioning properly requires a lot of maintenance and upkeep. Murky water, pool equipment inadequately maintained and defective pool drains can all contribute to pool accidents. If the pool is not maintained correctly and an injury or fatal pool accident occurs, the injured victim or family member can file a personal injury lawsuit or wrongful death lawsuit for compensation against the liable party charged with neglectful pool maintenance.

Lastly, some swimming pool accidents occur because of faulty or defective equipment, like a malfunctioning pool gate, a damaged diving board, or a faulty pool drain. Sometimes, the manufacturer of that part or device may be held liable for the injury or death. In other instances, the party responsible for the maintenance of the part so that it functions correctly can be held liable. Determining that specific liability can be challenging, and require an experienced drowning accident lawyer to untangle the causes of the accident so that each responsible party can be held accountable for their contribution to the accident.

The pool owner has a legal duty to share with guests any potential dangers or risks the use of the pool may create—this implicit duty as a pool owner is found under Texas law regarding premise liability.

Texas Premise Liability in Relation to Pool Accidents
Premise liability law concerns instances where someone sustains an injury or is killed while they are on someone else’s property. The majority of pool accidents occur when someone is visiting another individual’s home or property. In this scenario, that property owner has a specific legal duty toward their guests, depending on how the guest is designated:

A person who knowingly and willingly visits a property for the mutual benefit of both property owner and visitor is termed an invitee.
A person that knowingly and willingly visits a property for their own benefit is refereed to as a licensee. For example, a friend visiting a friend’s house would be termed a licensee.
The term trespasser is given to a person that knowingly and willingly enters a property without permission of the property owner. A burglar would be considered a trespasser, for example.
For the great majority of pool accidents in Texarkana, the victim is considered a licensee. Consequently, the property owner has a legal duty to warn their visitors about any previously existing risky conditions and to not intentionally cause injury to their visitor; basically, the pool owner must be pro-active in watching out for the safety of those individuals using their pool. In the event of a fatal drowning accident, the pool owner could be held civilly liable for a victim’s death. The plaintiff, in this scenario, would seek compensation through a wrongful death lawsuit.

The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act
The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act is a federal law that was enacted to prevent entrapment injuries or entrapment deaths from taking place in swimming pools and spas at educational facilities, apartments, and public places. It became effective in late 2008 and requires these pools and spas to use approved anti-entrapment drain covers. Texas and Arkansas law applies to these pools and spas too, because the states requirements meet or exceed the federal requirements.

Filing a Texarkana Drowning Accident Lawsuit
The Grossman Law Offices swimming pool drowning and accident attorneys can assist you in seeking compensation for the injury and expenses you’ve accrued, if your child experienced an injury in a pool drowning accident in Texarkana. Many serious medical conditions arise from pool injuries. These conditions can seriously impact your child and lead to mounting medical expenses you would be required to pay for their ongoing care and rehabilitation.

Our Texarkana swimming pool drowning attorneys can help you hold the responsible parties accountable for their behavior, if your child died from a swimming pool accident. Our attorneys will identify all responsible parties to punish them for their negligent actions and to make sure another drowning doesn’t occur again. Obviously, no amount of money can resuscitate your child, yet monetary compensation for damages through a wrongful death suit can reimburse you for all funeral costs, medical expenses, and pain and suffering. Michael Grossman, Texarkana swimming pool drowning lawyer has over twenty years of experience handling these wrongful death cases and has helped hundred of families seek compensation and witness the responsible party receive punishment for their negligence.

It’s critically important that the parents or guardians contact an attorney immediately after a drowning accident. If faulty parts or inadequate maintenance contributed to the accident, the faulty part may strangely be fixed before an investigation can be undertaken, and you may not be able to prove the faulty part played a role in the accident. If negligent supervision was an issue, the liable party may lie about their actions or inaction. Witnesses important to your case, can suddenly disappear, and the statute of limitations in Texas on wrongful death cases is only 24 months from the date of injury or death. It is not a wise choice to delay or postpone the process of seeking compensation and justice from a liable party.

Texarkana swimming pool drowning attorney Michael Grossman is available to help you pursue compensation and justice for your child’s drowning injury or death. We will walk with you through this very emotionally difficult time in your life, and make sure all liable parties are held accountable for their negligent behavior or actions.

Contact Texarkana swimming pool drowning and accident lawyer Michael Grossman for a free consultation (toll free) at 1-855-239-1290. We can answer your specific questions about your case, and will share all potential legal options so you can make an informed decision about your future.

Orthodontics 9/14/19 – gtg

Thumb or Finger Sucking For Non-nutrition Purposes:
What can you do and when should you begin? A article published in the Journal of the American Dental Association, states that “the ideal age for discontinuation of nonnutritive sucking habits may be around 24 months of age”. Sucking habits continued beyond the age of 24 months may result in increased risk of developing a (crossbite) narrowed top jaw and protrusive/bucked baby teeth. If a child’s habit persists beyond 48 months of age, “professional assistance in habit discontinuation may be warranted to minimize the risk of developing malocclusion”. Your child must actively participate in controlling their destiny. As a parent, try to avoid scolding your child about their habit. It is better to praise them when they are not sucking.
It is important to stop thumb or finger sucking habits as soon as possible after the age of 24 months.

Prolonged finger or pacifier habits can permanently alter the position of the teeth, jaws, roof of the mouth and tongue. The sucking of the cheeks inward around the finger, squeezes the upper jaw and makes the jaw abnormally narrow. The presence of the finger between the front teeth prevents the upper and lower front teeth from growing towards each other. The tongue often thrusts itself forward into the vertical space between the front teeth making this hole or open bite larger. Prolonged pacifier habits are associated with the development of posterior crossbites while prolonged finger habits are associated with bucked teeth. More children have trouble stopping finger sucking than pacifier sucking.

Intensity of the sucking is also a factor. Children who rest their thumbs passively in their mouths are less likely to have difficulty than those who vigorously suck their thumbs.

Here is an approach. Stop the night time sucking first because these long hours of sucking do the most damage; then work on daytime sucking.

Buy a LONG sleeve tee shirt that has a sleeve so long that it extends beyond the tips of your child’s fingers fully extended. Sew the cuff closed beyond the finger tips and have your child wear this long sleeve tee to bed as a pajama top. This method covers the fingers and is much more effective than mitts or gloves that are easier to take off.

For daytime sucking, place two strips of the 1/2 inch wide adhesive tape around the sucked finger on either side of the finger joint, creating tape donuts on either side of the joint. When your child puts their finger in their mouth, ask “How does it feel?”. Your child should tell you that the bulk of the tape donuts makes their finger feel very different. This tape reminder can be accentuated by painting the tape with foul tasting “Thum” medicine.

For TV time suckers, make a removable finger splint out of adhesive tape and two popsicle sticks. Place the splint on the TV and instruct your child to place the splint on their finger before they turn on the TV. They can remove the splint when they stop watching the TV.

Have your child make a chart. Your child will place a star on the chart if they did not suck their finger during the previous 24 hours. When a goal of 21 stars accumulate in a row, give your child a mutually agreed upon reward.

This program will replace the satisfaction of sucking with the child’s increased sense of accomplishment and self-esteem. Occasionally, a child who has stopped sucking may return to the habit. Just reinstitute the program and realize that this can happen with any long term habit.


Orthodontic treatment does not have to be an exercise in frustration and angst for our patients. We want to make sure you know what is going on every step of the way—which is just one more element of our signature Southern hospitality. The American Association of Orthodontics recommends checking for early intervention by the time a child is seven. No referral from your general dentist is necessary. In fact, some general dentists may be unaware of the early signs of dental “malocclusions” or the tooth and jaw relationship that should be addressed by an orthodontist.

We offer early intervention services like exams for crowding, skeletal growth, and looking for teeth that are not coming in appropriately. We sometimes use palatal expanders, which are a plastic or metal device that fits to the roof of a child’s mouth and gradually makes more room for adult teeth. However, when it’s possible, we do prefer to wait to treat patients until all their adult teeth have erupted, between the ages of twelve and thirteen. There are myriad benefits to waiting, among them fewer missed school days; lower incidence of patient–and parent–burnout; and more mature patients means better oral hygiene, and longer-lasting results with less cost but all the while still having the growth of the jaws that can be utilized in the pre-teen and teen years.

According to research from top tier Universities such as University of North Carolina, University of Florida, and University of Manchester, early intervention orthodontic treatment is not as beneficial for children as was assumed. In other words, for many problems there is no harm in waiting until teeth have come in. Together you, your child and the orthodontist can determine what is best for your child in any of these situations:

Habits like thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, or mouth breathing.
Problems with baby teeth–early loss or late arrival.
Upper front teeth that stick out may be more prone to injury or trauma.
Crowding of front or back teeth
Difficulty with chewing or biting.
Crossbite of the front or back teeth–this may cause asymmetric growth in the jaws, bone and gum loss of certain teeth that may be in crossbite, or an embarrassing appearance.


COOPERATION: We are all going the same way. Traveling together and helping each other makes the trip quicker, easier and more enjoyable. Daily cooperation in testing for loose bands (gently tugging each band to see if it moves on the tooth), wearing elastics and brushing cannot be overemphasized.

If cooperation is poor, we reserve the right to suspend treatment or to charge for additional treatment time required. Hopefully, this will not be needed.

APPOINTMENTS: Banding appointments of three quarters of an hour or more must be scheduled during school time. Routine adjustments will be set up after school whenever possible. If unable to keep an appointment, please notify us well in advance so that we may reschedule the appointment.

APPLIANCES: If an orthodontic appliance or wire should become loose or broken, please notify us as soon as possible to schedule an appointment to correct the problem. After five (5) incidents of loose or broken fixed appliances, (braces) a supplementary charge will be incurred for each dislodged appliance. Lost or broken removable appliances will incur supplementary repair or replacement fees.

Bring headgear, retainers and positioners to every appointment.

Avoid eating foods such as, nuts, hard candy, whole apples, popcorn, taffy, corn-on-the-cob, licorice, hard crusts, etc.

ELASTICS: (rubber bands) These are to be worn exactly as directed. Their action is greatest when eating. They may be removed when brushing the teeth. Replace the elastics with fresh ones once a day. If elastics are lost or if the supply runs low, contact our office for an additional supply.

HEADGEAR: This appliance is designed to be worn as much as possible. It must be worn a minimum of fourteen (14) hours a day while reading, watching television, doing homework, etc., and when sleeping. It may be removed for meals and sports.

ORAL HYGIENE: Teeth should be brushed after every meal and before bed. Elastics should be removed to aid in this process, and be replaced after rinsing with water. Use of disclosing tablets and water squirting machines is encouraged.



We use cosmetic dentistry for children to boost your loved one’s self-image. If your child is concerned about the impact that their smile has on the world, please turn to our practice for assistance. We provide cosmetic dentistry for children. Please call us today for more information about all the cosmetic dentistry services we can offer!

Cosmetic Dentistry for Children

We are ready to help boost your child’s self-image and smile with cosmetic dentistry for children procedures, and we will want to sit down with you and your child and discuss treatment plans. Our Pediatric Dentistry team needs to understand what your expectations and desires for cosmetic dentistry for children care are, and we’ll explain which techniques will be right for your child.

If your child is concerned about discoloration or stains on their enamel, ask us about teeth whitening for adolescents. We can use this method for patients who are preteens and teenagers. Teeth whitening is performed at home by wearing custom-fitting trays with prescription-strength whitening gel that we will provide. Regular use of the whitening trays can create long-lasting results in as little as two weeks. Please contact our office to schedule a cosmetic dentistry for children appointment.

Children are very recreational and active. This can sometimes lead to dental accidents. If your child has injured a tooth, consult with our Pediatric Dentistry staff about cosmetic dentistry solutions tailored to your child.

For minor dental damage, our cosmetic dentistry staff can use cosmetic bonding and shaping. We will shade a tooth-colored composite to match your child’s smile and use it to fill in injured teeth. This will create the look of a new, undamaged tooth. This is the most simple and popular cosmetic dentistry for children method.

Please call us to schedule a cosmetic dentistry for children visit.


There are a lot of ways children can hurt their teeth. Besides cavities, teeth can be chipped during accidents. Our practice has experience treating patients with crowns and fillings for children. Our team would like to help your child or teenager restore their teeth and enjoy smiling again. Please contact our practice today to schedule a crowns and fillings for children appointment.

We can use crowns and fillings for children to repair teeth when necessary. If your child’s smile has been affected by decay, we’ll most likely be able to use these cosmetic services to return full form and functionality to teeth. It will depend on how deep the cavity or tooth fracture is to determine whether the Pediatric Dentistry team will utilize a dental crown or a simple filling.

Ask about crowns and fillings for children today!
Most children enjoy sugary snacks and occasionally we do find cavities. Fillings are the most common method of repairing cavities in our practice. When a cavity affects a tooth, we will need to drill away the damaged area and cleanse the area. We use a filling to then restore the structure of the tooth.

A dental crown covers a tooth and prevents it from breaking down further. It may be necessary to place a crown if a large part of the tooth has been affected by harmful dental decay, and the existing tooth is still years from the time it should fall out. Our Pediatric Dentistry often uses crowns to fix broken teeth.

Besides white fillings and traditional metal crowns, we have white crowns for your child as well. We recommend natural-colored crowns and fillings for children if the altered tooth is a permanent one, especially if the tooth will be visible to peers. We will provide metal-free crowns and fillings for children to prevent your child’s teeth from appearing patchy or mismatched.

We’re happy to use crowns and fillings for children to repair your loved one’s smile. If you would like to see a Pediatric Dentist during your child’s time of need, please call us today to schedule a visit.


Orthodontists 9/12/19 (page 3) – gtg

You know, there is something about humans that really sets us apart from the other animals that inhabit this world. The thing that sets humans apart is that we are able to make use of tools to do things in the long term. At some point, our ancestors looked at the world around them and said that they were tired of being transient, of continuously walking back and forth chasing herds and weather, and decided that they could use tools and rocks and mortar and clay to make homes and with roofs and that this would be a much better way to live out their lives, and so it was. Then they decided that rather than leaving their roofed houses every day and going out into the wild, they could bring agriculture to them, and that such a thing would allow them to not have to risk life and limb for berries. And to accomplish this, they used those tools to change the land around them and to bring in the waters from streams to make their crops grow. Eventually, they also went out and caught wild creatures and somewhat domesticated them, which made the process of getting meat and skins and furs a whole lot simpler.

And of course, as with all great groups, we eventually turned that improvement to the world around us and to the self as well. If you want to make sure your smile is going to look its best, you may notice that this is the place and the time to begin orthodontic improvement.

But today, if you want to fix your smile, you are going to be able to do so with little hassle just by going to your local orthodontic office and see what they can offer you to make sure your smile will look its very best. Here are just a few things that they may be able to offer you:

1. Diagnosis

The first step in making sure that you are going to be able to have the smile that you want is the same as the first step in any sequence of medical treatment. In this case, you just have to go to your local orthodontist office and look and see what is causing your smile to look as bad as it is, and why your teeth are misaligned. This is the beginning of your treatment plan.

2. Surgery

In some cases, you are going to find that when your teeth are not looking their best, you are going to need to turn to surgery. Basically, if you are having issues with the way that your teeth currently look because they are overcrowded, you are going to want to make sure that you remove a tooth or two, as needed, to make sure that the rest have the space that they need in order to be able to better spread out and whatnot.

3. Invisalign

Finally, when it comes to the actual alignment of teeth, Invisalign is the most advanced treatment. They will be able to make sure that your smile is going to look its very best. The fact is that when it comes to fixing the smile, Invisalign will allow you to fix your smile while also taking advantage of a measure of discretion and comfort that you will not be able to get with other treatments.

So, if you are looking to make sure your smile will look its very best, it is about time that you look to your local professional orthodontist and see what they can do for you. You’ll be glad you did.


Your smile can make a powerful impression on others. It’s one of the main points of connection that enables you to share your thoughts and emotions with the people in your life. Is your smile saying what you want it to say? Caring for your mouth is more than just brushing your teeth and occasionally visiting your dentist. Even at a young age children learn to take good care of their teeth by brushing and flossing at least twice a day. But good health for your smile takes more than brushing your teeth. Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the holistic, larger picture of your mouth’s health. From improving the strength and alignment of your jaw to correcting the positioning of all your teeth and how they fit together, orthodontic treatment methods can support and better the overall functioning of your mouth. Your orthodontic specialist will be your professional guide on the path to a healthier mouth and more beautiful smile.

Before choosing your orthodontist, consider reaching out to your dentist for recommendations. Your dentist should be able to share several great suggestions for other professionals in the orthodontic field that are practicing the most current and technologically advanced treatment methods. Does your dentist have children or teens? If so, consider asking who they see for their orthodontic treatment needs in order to find an orthodontic office that will work for your entire family. Of course, make sure that the orthodontist you choose is licensed by the American Association of Orthodontists, which is the governing organization that creates the ethical standards and training standards for the industry. Once you’ve selected the orthodontist that you’d like to work with, it’s time to set up a consultation appointment. Your orthodontist will take into consideration all the unique aspects of your mouth and will be able to share with you several strong recommendations for which orthodontic treatment method will be the best fit for your smile. There is a wide variety of orthodontic treatment methods available these days. From traditional braces to clear braces, lingual braces, retainers, or Invisalign braces, there is an orthodontic treatment method available to suit your specific needs.

Your orthodontist might want you to consider using a retainer or spacer to realign teeth and correct your smile. These classic orthodontic treatment tools are effective but might not be the right fit for your mouth’s needs. In that case, you’ll likely want to choose from one of many different kinds of braces for your orthodontic treatment. Traditional, metal braces are usually what people think of when they think of orthodontics. This method has some amount of stigma associated with it for some people, as the orthodontic treatment has a considerable impact on the patient’s appearance during the treatment period. Traditional braces are an effective form of treatment and involve attaching brackets to each tooth that needs repositioning , affixing wire to those brackets, then tightening the brackets over a period of time. Your orthodontist will create a treatment plan that includes measurements for the increments of tightening so that the movement of teeth is slow and deliberate over time.

For those interested in slightly more discreet orthodontic treatment options, consider clear braces. This method is very similar to traditional braces with one major difference. There are still brackets that are attached to each tooth, but they are clear. This orthodontic treatment method has a more subtle impact on the patient’s appearance during treatment. Lingual braces, also referred to as hidden braces, are another good option for a discreet form of orthodontic treatment. This method is similar to traditional braces but the difference is that the brackets are attached to the back of each tooth, the wires are affixed behind the teeth, and all the tightening takes place behind the teeth as well. This option is a good fit for some patients but may cause discomfort for others.

An innovative form of orthodontic treatment for smile correction, which is both discreet and effective is called Invisalign braces. Invisalign braces are a wonderful option for adults, teens, seniors, and even kids. With this form of orthodontic treatment, patients receive a series of plastic aligners that are completely clear, computer designed and 3D printed. Over the course of treatment, you wear a different aligner in accordance with the treatment schedule that your orthodontist creates. Invisalign braces are a great fit for families, as adults enjoy the incredibly discreet nature of the treatment and kids appreciate that nothing is permanently attached to the teeth.

Regardless of which orthodontic treatment option that you choose, your orthodontist will work with you to find the perfect orthodontic treatment method that will improve and enhance your smile.

You value your health and work to keep all the members of your family in good health. Health doesn’t stop at a strong body; health extends to a strong and happy mouth. Your teeth need more care than just regular flossing and brushing can provide. Good oral hygiene is a great start to a beautiful and healthy smile, but if you want a strong mouth and jaw then you need the guidance of qualified orthodontic professionals. Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the overall health of the mouth from the proper alignment of the jaw to the strength and positioning of the teeth. If you don’t already have a trusted orthodontist that your family regularly visits, it’s time to find the right fit for your family’s smiles.

Choosing the best orthodontist for your family can feel like a daunting task but it doesn’t have to be difficult. Start by reaching out to friends and colleagues for their recommendations of great orthodontists. Ask for specific details about why they appreciate the orthodontic practice that they visit. Is the staff friendly and helpful? Is the customer service at the front desk timely and polite? Finding out why these orthodontic practices are highly regarded will give you a sense of what others value in their experiences at the orthodontist office, which will help you formulate your ideas about what elements matter the most to you in your experience at the orthodontist office. The opinions of your friends and family will hold a great deal of weight as you’re narrowing your choice of the orthodontists that you want to find out more about.

Next you’ll want to take your research online. You’ll want to find about the online presence of each of the orthodontic practices that you’re considering visiting. You should be able to find the location of the office, information about the range of prices for orthodontic services, and information regarding the kinds of orthodontic treatment methods that each practices specializes in. If you’re looking for an orthodontist who can provide treatment for both your kids and teens as well as your spouse, you’ll want to make sure that the practice you’re considering shows a wide array of services for all kinds of patients. Should you want braces for teens, you’ll want make sure that the orthodontic office specializes in several options for braces such as Invisalign and lingual braces.

Once you’ve selected the orthodontist who will be the right fit for your family’s needs, it’s time to schedule consultation appointments. At the consultation appointment, your orthodontist will thoroughly examine your mouth and create an orthodontic treatment plan that will best fit your smile’s unique needs. Your orthodontist will work with you to pick the orthodontic treatment method that you feel best matches with your style while still improving your smile.

There are a variety of orthodontic treatment methods available today. From retainers and spacers to a wide selection of braces, there’s an orthodontic treatment method available to fit the needs of each member in your family. Retainers and spacers are a good fit for those with little to mild smile correction needs. You’ll want to work with your orthodontist to determine if you’ll need a permanent retainer or a more flexible option.

If you’re considering some form of braces for your smile correction needs, there are a wide array of choices. Traditional braces are what most people think of when they think of orthodontics. These braces work by attaching brackets to each tooth then affixing a wire to the brackets that will be tightened over time. This option is not the most discreet choice of braces available today but it works for patients who aren’t concerned about their appearance during the treatment process. For those who need a more discreet form of braces, Invisalign braces are a great option. These braces are highly effective and incredibly discreet. For this treatment method, patients are given a series of completely clear plastic aligners that are 3D printed and computer designed specifically for their mouth. Over the treatment timeline, patients wear a different aligner based on their orthodontist’s orthodontic treatment plan.

With the guidance and support of a trusted orthodontic professional, there’s no limit to the improvements that you’ll be able to make to your smile. Finding an orthodontist who will be a great fit for your whole family, means that the health of your family’s smiles will be exponentially stronger. Your smile and the smiles of each of your family members will be more brilliant and confident with the support of orthodontic treatments.


So you’ve finally decided to do something about your crooked smile. You’ve started looking around an orthodontist that can provide you with the level of service you need. The first you’ll find is that you have a ton of options here. Listen to advice from you dentist and compare reviews and services online to choose the best one. One thing to consider is what options they have to fix your smile. One of the biggest reasons people avoid adult orthodontic treatment is the fact that they’ll have to have a mouthful of metal. We are keen on keeping up appearances, and often we don’t want to sacrifice a few months or years to look better in the end. But that’s fine, there is a solution.

Most orthodontists provide a variety of service options that are a bit more discreet than traditional braces. Today, we’re going to go over a few choices you’ll want to look for as you consider different orthodontists. Remember, all you have to do is check their website or ask if they provide the service you’re most interested in!

Let’s start with the basics:

Traditional Metal Braces – So you’re familiar with how these look, and it’s normal to want to avoid having them in your mouth, but they are EXTREMELY effective. If you aren’t sure, braces work with a bracket and wire system. Metal brackets are affixed to individual teeth, and then a guide wire is run between the brackets. Rubber bands will be used to keep the brackets in place. Periodically, the orthodontist will need to adjust the wires to tighten them and keep moving teeth into place. There are multiple other add ons that are fairly common with braces. When treatment is complete, you’ll need a retainer to stop teeth from shift back, and you might even need other forms of treatment to address under-bites, overbites, or similar conditions.

Clear Braces – So you want your treatment to be a bit more discreet, but you don’t want to lose any effectiveness? Then clear braces are the perfect option for you. Instead of metal, the brackets are made from a plastic polymer that is tough to notice on teeth. Since they function exactly the same as regular braces, they can be used to treat even the most severe malocclusion cases. Though clear braces are harder to notice, people can still tell you’re wearing them, and you’ll still have to deal with other annoyances of braces, like extensive cleaning and avoiding problematic foods.

Lingual Braces – The next step in discreet orthodontic treatment are lingual braces. They actually use the same materials as traditional braces, but there is a HUGE difference. Instead of affixing them to the front of teeth, the orthodontist will put them on the backside. This hides them out of sight from just about anyone. There are some drawbacks to lingual braces though, if your mouth is too small, they won’t fit. There can also be issues with the braces clashing with the tongue. However, to many people, this is the perfect solution when they want discreet orthodontic treatment.

Invisalign – Last but certainly not least, Invisalign is the newest form of treatment on this list. Created in the 1990s, Invisalign has surged in popularity in the last couple of decades. This is the only form of treatment on this list that is vastly different from the other options. Rather than brackets and wires, Invisalign uses aligners that shift teeth into place gently over time. The clear plastic aligners can be taken out of the mouth as needed. This makes cleaning and eating a whole lot easier on the patient undergoing treatment. However, if your teeth are seriously out of alignment, Invisalign might not be the best choice. You’ll need to consult with your orthodontist to figure out the best form of treatment for your unique situation.

When you’re considering orthodontic treatment, don’t let the appearance of braces in your mouth hold you back. You may not have realized that you’ve got a multitude of choices, but you should be aware of that fact now. Ultimately, it’s up to you and the orthodontist you’ve selected to determine the best course of action.

Adults with braces or Invisalign is nothing new, so you’re not going to be facing treatment alone. And then, before you know it, treatment will be complete and you won’t be able to contain your smile. You’ll be amazed with the confidence boost you receive and all the people that will notice your new, straight smile.


Very often, kids fear what they do not know. Take, for example, trips to the dentist office. Often, this scares young kids, because they involve many things they aren’t familiar with; tools they’ve never seen before, strangers putting things in and poking out their mouths and unfamiliar sounds. The one advantage dentist offices do have, however, is that they begin visiting dentists at such a young age it quickly becomes a routine part of their lives, instead of something to fear. Unfortunately, this advantage does not exist when it comes to visiting the orthodontist office. Once kids begin going to the orthodontist, they are at least seven years old. In fact, they may have already heard stories from friends and siblings, talking about how scary it is and all of the things that can happen at the orthodontist, like getting braces. Many children will build up a healthy fear of the orthodontist office before they even begin their orthodontic care.

The fears, however, can be eased with fact. If you explain to you child exactly what will happen at the orthodontic office, taking them through the process step by step, you will go a long way in easing their fears. When the mystery of what is going on is taken away, their imagine will be calmed; instead of scary imagery, they will be imagining what is really going to happen. Of course, for you to be able to explain to your child what is going to happen at the orthodontic office, you have to know yourself. That is why today we are going to go over exactly what you will go through when you take your child for their first trip to the orthodontic office.

Paperwork comes first
This should be old hat for you; the orthodontist office is no different from any other medical appointment in that your first visit begins with filling out paperwork. There are many forms to fill out, but this is needed so your child’s orthodontist has all the information they need in order to provide the right kind of care. While your child will not be involved in filling out the paperwork, it is likely that they will be interested in what you are doing. Therefore, you should explain to them that you are filling the forms out so the orthodontist knows all about them. Let them know that the orthodontist needs to know this so that they can decide what is the best way to give your child the perfect smile they need and deserve. While you are busy filling out paperwork, it can also be helpful to encourage your child explore the waiting room, becoming more comfortable in this new environment. It is likely that the orthodontic office, particularly one that is designed with children in mind, will have books and games set out for the children to entertain themselves with. These not only work to distract your child while you get everything that needs to be taken care of done, they can also help them relax and forget all about their initial fears.

Once you finish filling out the necessary paperwork, you and your child will be taken back to the exam room, where they will be introduced to the staff that will be handling their orthodontic care for years to come. Obviously, the orthodontist will introduce themselves and make an effort to get to know the child and let the child get to know them. Then, the rest of the team will be brought in and introduced. This includes the assistants and technicians; this is important, because they will be the people who are mist involved in your child’s orthodontic care.

Preliminary exam
Of course, at some point an examination will take place. The orthodontist will need to examine your child’s mouth, jaw and teeth. This will probably be the most fearful moment for your child. It can be helpful to assure your child that nothing is going to happen during this preliminary exam and that the orthodontist just needs to have a look around.

Smile for the camera!
Once the routine is finished, the orthodontist will probably want to take pictures, both regular pictures and x-rays. The normal pictures will most likely involve photographing your child smiling, with a neutral expression, and in profile. This is so they will have a visual track record as treatment progresses. X-rays will be taken for the same reason, and also to find out more about the structure of your child’s jaw and mouth. This should not be unfamiliar for your child, as it is likely they have gone through the process at the dentist. Be sure they understand that it is no different from the x-rays they have had taken at the dentist office.


There are many adults who go through life with crooked teeth, unhappy with how their smile looks. It is typical that if they don’t get braces during childhood or their teenage years, they never will. This means that they suffer their entire lives with the effects of having crooked teeth. Often, their self-esteem suffers the most, as they are ashamed of their smile and do their best not to show it. They will take strides to avoid others seeing their smile, such as hiding from cameras and putting off meeting new people for fear of being judged based on their smile. Of course, those suffering these effects frequently consider getting braces to fix their issues. However, they typically dismiss this issue because when they think about braces the image that comes to mind is one of a mouth full of metal. It simply does not seem worth spending months or even years being uncomfortable and more self-conscious about their smile.

What these people are not aware of, however, is that they have another choice. Having straight teeth does not require the you go through the hassle of traditional metal braces. Perhaps if more people were aware that there is an alternative, they would take the next step to straighten their teeth. This alternative, the one that could give them the smile they have always wanted, is Invisalign. We want those who may benefit from them to understand this alternative option and why they are, in a number of ways, better than traditional metal braces. So today, we are going go over the basics of Invisalign braces; if you are one of those suffering from crooked teeth, you will want to keep reading.

What are Invisalign braces?
A relatively new way to straighten your teeth, Invisalign braces will give you the smile you have always wanted. By using a specially designed system, Invisalign braces uses trays that will straighten the teeth. These trays are designed using 3D imaging technology, technology that simply wasn’t around when metal braces became the common way to re-align teeth. These trays are clear and they sit flush against the teeth. This means that they are nearly invisible; only the wearer will know they are there. Obviously, this a big benefit to many people. A fair amount of people put off getting braces because they do not want to deal with the cosmetic issues that metal braces bring with them; they worry they look juvenile, unprofessional and unattractive. This fear is not unfounded; because young people are usually the ones who get braces, there is a prevailing idea that those wearing them look immature.

The Invisalign system has two trays, one for the bottom row of teeth and one for the top. Every two weeks, the wearer receives a new set from their orthodontist, a set that will pull their teeth closer to alignment. Typically, treatment will last between 9 and 18 months.

Why benefits do Invisalign braces have that traditional metal braces don’t?
We have already gone over Invisalign’s most well known advantage, and that is the fact that are very nearly invisible. With Invisalign braces, wearers do not have to worry about the whole world knowing that they are getting their teeth straightened. There is more than just invisibility that makes Invisalign braces a more attractive choice than traditional metal braces.

There is a not insignificant amount of pain associated with traditional metal braces. They are made up of many different bands, brackets and wires; these are required to pull the teeth into alignment. Unfortunately, they also crowd the mouth and rub against the inside of the lips and cheeks. This rubbing creates sores that can make simple things like eating and speaking difficult. The trays Invisalign braces utilize, on the other hand, are smooth and sit directly against the teeth. They do not create friction, and therefore they do not create sores. You level of discomfort with Invisalign braces will be considerably lower than with traditional metal braces.

It’s also more difficult to take care of your dental hygiene with traditional metal braces. All those parts we spoke about make the perfect hiding spots for food particles and bacteria; these areas are also very difficult to clean. That means that serious oral health issues such as tooth decay and cavities can occur. Once again, Invisalign braces fix this issue. The trays are removable. When it is time for the wearer to brush or floss, they simply take out the trays and proceed as they always have. There is no added risk of oral health issues.


Steel, titanium, gold, silver, ceramic, plastic; these are some of the materials used to restore and repair your teeth. Most of them are also used to provided cosmetic and functional improvements to your teeth and bite. What is common about these materials? They are very durable, some can be very expensive, all are relatively common in our lives because they have a myriad of uses, both exotic and common.

A common use of such materials is in the fabrication of dental braces. Dental braces which are used to improve the lives of humans by restoring, repairing and refreshing our smiles and correcting some dental functions. Crooked teeth and improper bites can be aesthetically displeasing and can also result in lower functionality, contribute to unusual and excessive wear patterns and cause jaw pain and long-lasting problems like TMJ (a serious jaw condition called temporomandibular Joint dysfunction, glad it can be shortened to initials, which occurs when the bite is out of alignment and results in severe pain within the joint and muscles controlling movement of the jaw).

These materials are used to craft a new look and feel through the use of orthodontic treatment. You can have a lasting improvement in your smile and your attitude after a short time of skilled treatment by an experienced orthodontist. Let’s begin with teeth, the basis for the improvements and the braces. Teeth are often not perfectly aligned and corrective efforts can make the alignment more perfect through the use of braces.

There are four basic types of dental braces. The types are called metal band, “clear”, invisible, and aligners. The type called metal band braces is one of the first braces used. In metal band braces, stainless steel brackets are cemented to the front surface of the teeth. A wire is used to connect all of the brackets and to deliver gentle, continuous pressure to each bracket according to an orthodontic plan developed specifically for your mouth and designed to accomplish movement of teeth according to your particular needs. The metal band braces are capable of correcting almost any degree of dental remodeling, including severe problems. They are in place for a period of eighteen to twenty-four months, and sometimes a bit longer.

The second type mentioned above is known as “clear” braces. Although the materials used are not really clear, these types of braces are not as obvious as the metal bands. The brackets are made of ceramic or plastic composites and a white wire is used to connect the brackets and provide pressure for the remodeling. Basically everything else is the same as the metal band braces including duration of treatment.

A third type is called invisible braces, or lingual braces. In this case the metal brackets and the wire are applied to the inside surface of the teeth and they are not readily apparent; in other words, invisible braces. There are two methods for installation of the invisible braces.

The first method is for a highly skilled and experienced orthodontist to place the components of the braces manually. A second newer method involves a prefabrication process. This process is known by the brand names of “Insignia braces” and “Incognito braces”. Rather than relying exclusively on the skills of the orthodontist for design and placement, the orthodontist prepares a detailed and precise set of measurements for you mouth, along with a personalized orthodontic plan to a manufacturer. The manufacturer uses advanced methods to produce an appliance engineered and customized to provide you with the results required for your unique requirements. The orthodontist inserts the appliance into your mouth and makes periodic, required adjustments.

The final type of braces is known as aligners, and one of the most well-known is a brand called “Invisalign“. An aligner is made of transparent plastic and sets are manufactured specifically for your teeth and precise changes specified in the orthodontic plan. Multiple sets of increasingly aggressive aligners (up to two or three dozen) are made and provided by the manufacturer. During periodic exams, the orthodontist will place the next set on your teeth. Remodeling of the teeth is constant using aligners, but they must be removed while eating and after eating you must floss and brush your teeth. The user then replaces the aligner in the mouth.

A remodeling accelerator, such as the brand “AcceleDent Aura”, can be used to speed up the rearrangement of the teeth. It is used in addition to braces, and the time requirement is twenty minutes per day. Micropulses are transmitted through a mouthpiece to the teeth, and those vibrations cause the teeth to be moved more rapidly, often reducing the time required for braces by months.


You have always prided yourself on the fact that you do everything you can to stay as healthy as possible. With your health in mind, you make sure that you stick to a good diet, and stay in shape by working out on a regular basis. You also make sure to see your doctor frequently. Being health conscious also extends your oral health. You do all you can to make sure your teeth and gums stay in great shape. You brush regularly – at least two, but often three, times a day. You also make sure to floss every night before bed. You are even sure to stay away from sugary food and drinks that could contribute to tooth decay. You visit your dentist office twice a year in order to receive professional exams and cleanings. All of this diligence should result in not only a healthy smile, but a beautiful one. You should love the smile you have. Unfortunately, that is not the case for you. While it is true your oral health is in great shape, it is also true that your teeth are crooked. There is nothing you can do about this fact at home. All the brushing in the world will not give you the straight smile you so desire.

It Is not it getting braces had never crossed your mind. In fact, you have thought of it quite often. You have never gone through with it though because the idea of walking around with a mouth full of metal is not an appealing one to you. Continuing through life with crooked teeth seems like the better option. After all, there are many who would consider an adult having braces to look immature and unprofessional. The risk on your personal and professional life is too great.

Luckily for you, however, there is an alternative option. You can achieve the straight smile you have always wanted without having a mouth full of metal. This can be done through the use of Invisalign braces. Invisalign braces leave behind disadvantages center inherent in traditional metal braces. Of course it is entirely possible that you are not familiar with Invisalign braces. So today we are going to talk about exactly what they are and why they could be the right choice for you.

What are Invisalign braces?
Invisalign braces are a new kind of braces. They use a clear aligner system in order to straighten the teeth. These aligners come in the form of clear trays that slip over the teeth. When most people imagine braces, they probably think about all of the different parts that are involved; the brackets, bands and wires. The need for all of these parts are eliminated with Invisalign braces. The trays that make up the Invisalign system come in sets of two, one for the top row of teeth and one for the bottom. These trays are clear, giving Invisalign its most well-known, and popular, advantage – invisibility. The fact that the trays are clear means that only the person wearing them will have to know they are there. The worries of what having braces would do to one’s appearance and how others view them are eliminated.

3-D imaging technology is used to make these invisible braces; technology that was simply not available when metal braces became the standard of care. Treatment with Invisalign braces usually takes between nine and 18 months. The trays are switched out every two weeks, which means that eighteen to thirty-six pairs of trays will be used.

Why advantages do Invisalign braces have over metal braces?
The most well-known advantage that Invisalign braces brain has already been touched on, and that is the fact that they are inconspicuous to the point of being nearly invisible. However, that is not the only advantage that Invisalign braces bring to the table. Traditional metal braces bring with them a fair amount of pain. This happens because all of the pieces that are needed to straighten the teeth are affixed to the teeth and crowd the mouth. This crowding means that the pieces will rub against the inside of the cheeks and lips. This rubbing create friction which in turn creates painful sores. The sores can make it difficult to eat or even speak. The Invisalign trays, however, are smooth and sit flush against the teeth. Therefore, there is no crowding and no protrusions to rub against the soft tissue and create sores.

It is also easier to maintain proper dental hygiene with Invisalign braces. When you have a traditional metal braces, all of those brackets, bands and wires create the perfect crevices for food particles and bacteria to get caught in. Even with frequent brushing and flossing, it is difficult to get these areas clean. This is not the case with Invisalign braces. The trays are removable. Therefore, when is time for the wearer to brush their teeth or floss, they simply take out the trays and go about the chore as they always have. The process is not made anymore difficult or time-consuming. There is no added risk of serious oral health issues, such as tooth decay or gum disease, developing.

If you’re interested in learning more about Invisalign braces, consult with your orthodontist today.


Getting braces has become incredibly common; at least among middle class 1st world countries, getting braces is almost a kind of rite of passage. Since early orthodontic treatment is the best way to treat malocclusion, or misaligned teeth, this is most often when it happens. There is no clear, all-encompassing theory of why teeth don’t grow in straight in all people, but most orthodontic scientists feel it has to do with genetics, meaning none of us have much control over it, at all. For something that we can do nothing to prevent, malocclusion (the medical term for crooked teeth) has a tremendous effect on our psyche, which is why braces have become so common. Although it does present actual functional issues, in some cases, mostly the problem with malocclusion is simply that it makes people afraid to smile, and that puts a serious damper on their self-confidence. Nobody wants to feel embarrassed every time they smile, and certainly nobody wants that for their kids, so people flock to orthodontists by the millions, every year.

But orthodontic treatment has changed quite a bit, over time. As with most medical treatments, it was once much more basic, and primitive, but now has reached a higher level of technological proficiency, and integration with new technologies, like computer software. Especially for adults, who typically would prefer not to have ugly metal braces on their teeth, advances in incognito types of braces have made this a better time to see the orthodontist than has ever been. Even for kids, though, smile correction has made leaps and bounds, and does it’s job better than it ever has, before.

One way that orthodontist’s methods have improved is in the area of diagnostics. The primary method for diagnosing malocclusions is x-ray, and this technology has improved a lot over the years. In olden times, the flat, negative photos that were obtained with x-rays gave the orthodontist only a cursory idea of what was truly going on in your mouth. Now, with conical CT scans, it’s possible for orthodontists to have a much greater level of accuracy and understanding of the bone structure of your teeth, jaw, and lower skull. These scans, which use x-ray to scan in a conical shape, give your orthodontist a 3D computer representation of your skull, that looks like CGI from a movie. With this, they can see exactly what is going on with your teeth, and exactly how best to fix it.

Once an assessment is made, your orthodontist may only find it necessary to treat you with spacers, retainers, or other removable tools, if your malocclusion is not severe enough to warrant braces. However, this is very often not the case, and braces are frequently found to be necessary to give you the smile you really want. Braces use interconnected brackets, which attach to the surfaces of the teeth, to maneuver your teeth into a better, more aesthetically pleasing position. They usually have to be worn for several weeks or months, and periodically adjusted, meaning trips in to see your orthodontist every couple of weeks.

A number of advances have been made in the world of braces, many of them geared towards adults seeking some form of invisible braces, for obvious reasons. Most adults do not prefer to have the same extremely obvious and prominent metal braces worn by children. To address this desire, orthodontic innovators have created several variations on the approach of braces, that doesn’t have such a negative effect on appearance. In some cases, they are very nearly invisible. There are braces who simply use different materials, the most popular being clear and ceramic braces, which blend in better with the teeth, and then there are lingual braces, which hide behind the teeth, by attaching to the backs of the, rather than the fronts. These are all great options, all still just different types of braces.

There’s also another option, that is an alternative to braces, called Invisalign aligners. Aligners are like clear plastic sheaths which fit directly over your teeth, one for the top row, and one for the bottom. They are basically invisible, like a clear laminated layer over your teeth, and have the added convenience of being removable. Invisalign aligners accomplish the same goal as braces, but by surrounding your teeth with a plastic casing, rather than attaching to their surfaces. Each pair of Invisalign aligners is custom printed using scans of your teeth, by your orthodontist. New aligners then have to be printed every 2-3 weeks.


Orthodontics – is it for adults? Braces have always been associated with children and teenagers. It was quite rare to see an adult person wearing braces. It was laughable! However, it is a different story these days. Adult orthodontia is indeed quite popular these days. Age is no longer a big consideration when determining whether or not a person can wear braces. You are probably wondering what options are there available for you. You are probably wondering where to find the best and most affordable orthodontists.

Wearing Braces to Fix Your Teeth

Before you start looking for an orthodontist, you have to make sure that you know what you are getting into. It is helpful to get the necessary information first before you approach a dental specialist. This way, it will be easier for you to understand the process. You will be able to communicate with your orthodontist without him or her needing to explain every little detail to you. You will know your options and you will have a good idea about the procedure that your orthodontist may have to adopt.

Many people ask, “Is wearing braces painful?”

Yes, it is. You need to know this because orthodontists tend to omit telling you this information unless of course you persistently ask. The level of discomfort that adults experience is different from children or teenagers. Usually, the pain that adult patients experience tends to last longer than three days. It is also hard to control or minimize the pain with painkillers. You have to be prepared for this. Adult teeth are usually harder to move and to fix. The good news is that it gets better with time.

Finding an Orthodontist Online

It is really not hard to look for an orthodontist online. It will help you greatly if you would visit a site that offers automatic links to countless orthodontists including those who are residing in your area. You just have to provide your location or your zip code and you will be given a list of orthodontists. It’s as simple as that. Once you get your links, you only need to compare various orthodontists and make your choice.


If you are looking for Orthodontists, there are actually numerous choices available to you. But before you actually undergo training and treatment, you need to consider several things and you need to understand what you are really getting into.

Orthodontic treatment varies from one clinic to another. The cost may vary. The specialists’ expertise and experience may vary. Their philosophies and methods may differ as well. This is the same with professionals specializing in Orthodontics. What is the same, however, is the length of treatment. It will take months for a patient to complete the whole process. Therefore, it is essential that one should shop around and look for the best specialist in the area.

If you are really considering orthodontic treatment, there are some things that you have to check out. First of all, you should consider the kind of support staff or work staff that a clinic has. You need to get the best level of care that you can afford. Usually, competent dentists will ensure that they have the best equipment and they are informed of the most modern procedures. They also equip their office with competent, helpful and caring staff in order to ensure their patients’ comfort and care. When choosing your orthodontist, don’t limit your inquiry to what your dentist can do for you. You should also check out the competence and experience level of his or her technical staff.

The treatment process takes some time and you have will be dealing with your orthodontist and his or her staff for a considerable period of time. You have to make sure that you can comfortably look forward to your treatment. You will want to be comfortable every time you come in for checkup and adjustments. So, when choosing your orthodontist, you should take note of the level of service that his or her clinic also offers.


Chances are if you looking at this site you are looking to find an orthodontist. Finding the right orthodontist for you can be a difficult decision and you need to make an informed decision. You need to do some research before selecting your Orthodontist as you want to be sure they are professional, qualified and have a good reputation.

A way that many people chose their orthodontist is through family or friends. These can a be a good way to get an honest opinion from those that you trust. However another way to select an orthodontist can be to use the internet and website such as this. To get honest reviews from people just like you why not use Google places, however be aware that some businesses do write reviews of themselves meaning that sometimes these reviews cannot be trusted. To find honest, impartial information on Orthodontists use review websites like this one that display information on local orthodontists in your particular area.

Choosing your orthodontist is an important decision and you should do your research to make sure you pick the right one for you. Location is important when choosing your orthodontist, do you want them to be near your work or your home? How far are you prepared to travel? However the reputation of an orthodontist is more important than how long it will take you to get there! Once you have all the information you need you can go and book an initial consultation with the orthodontist of your choice.

When attending your initial consultation you have to make sure you are confident with your decision and that you understand what the Orthodontist is saying to you and how much it is going to cost. You need to know what to expect before you begin the treatment so there are no nasty surprises when the treatment gets underway!


A great smile can really help with your confidence and a trip to an Orthodontist can help you achieve this. San Antonio has some of the best medical and dental professionals in the world which have a wide variety of treatments and technology available with can help you achieve that perfect smile. However orthodontists are not only there to offer cosmetic treatments they can also treat things such as jaw issues and broken or crooked teeth.

The first step in beginning your orthodontic journey is to achedule a consultation with your Orthodontist. This initial consultation will involve discussing what kind of results you want to achieve and your orthodontist will explain some of the treatments to you and what this would entail. These discussions will involve information such as treatment type and length and costs. Don’t let the cost put you off undertaking treatment, there are many payment schemes available and if you put off getting vital treatment now these problems could worsen and could end up costing a lot more in the future!

Orthodontists are experts in their fields and San Antonio is home to some of the best orthodontic technologies and treatments. The most popular of this treatment is Invisalign. Invisalign is cutting edge in orthodontic procedures and eradicates the need of unsightly braces. Invisalign gives you a beautiful smile with the use of clear braces which you can’t even see, meaning they are the perfect option for people who want to be discreet about their orthodontic treatment.

Even if Invisalign is out of your reach don’t worry, the leading orthodontists will be able to offer you braces which are still hardly noticeable and are much more stylish than the braces of many years ago.